Glossary

A

Accessibility Features
The settings and tools available within the Student Testing Interface that provide support for students. Wyoming Department of Education uses a three-tiered system of student support which includes: Universal Tools (embedded and non-embedded), Designated Supports (embedded and non-embedded), and Accommodations (embedded and non-embedded).

Accommodations
Accommodations are changes in procedures or materials that provide equitable access to the WY-TOPP and WY-ALT assessments. Accommodations may be embedded or non-embedded and must be documented in an IEP or 504 Plan. Please note: Assessment accommodations may differ slightly from classroom accommodations.
Aggregation
The compilation of test result data in a report that provides average scores for groups of students in schools, districts, and the state.
AI Scoring
Artificial Intelligence scoring used for testing items.
Alert Paper
A student written response flagged for contextual concerns, including; violence, self-harm, drug abuse, etc.
Alignment
The association between an item on a test and a content standard that identifies which skill or knowledge area that item is intended to measure.
Alternative Computer Input Technology
Assistive tools that allow students with various impairments (such as physical and visual impairments) to interact with a computer without using a traditional mouse and keyboard setup.
Appeal
A request to resolve a non-standard situation which may interrupt the progress of a test opportunity. Appeals are created and processed in TIDE.
Assessment
The opportunity to gauge student knowledge and learning at micro and macro levels.
Assessment Reports
Reports available in the Centralized Reporting System that provide detailed student performance data for a test taken by a student or group of students.
Assessment Window
A designated time period each school year during which schools administer tests to students. Wyoming Department of Education has three types of assessment windows: one Modular window, three Interim windows, and one Summative window.
Assistive Keyboard and Mouse Input Technology
Assistive tools that provide additional support to students with physical impairments who need to use a keyboard and mouse in order to respond to test items.
Assistive Technology
Any hardware or software that can be used to help students with accessibility needs.

B

Braille Ready File - BRF
A Braille file typed used to emboss test items containing only text, including formatted tables.
Building Coordinator
A system user role representing a test coordinator for an individual school.
Building Data Reviewer - BDR
A system user role that may view student reports for their school.

C

Centralized Reporting System
A system that provides comprehensive student performance reports on assessments.
Chrome OS
An operating system developed and distributed by Google, which is supported by Secure Browser.
Chromebook
A laptop that runs Chrome OS.
Cluster
May refer to either of two things:
-A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.
-A set of items or interactions within a single item that engages students in activity aligned to a specific standard.
Cohort
A group of students who have something in common, such as students with similar test scores.
Comma-Separated Values
A type of file in which data are separated by commas.
Complexity
The level of cognitive demand expected for a student to correctly answer a test item.
Condition Code
A code applied to a student assessment report when a test item cannot be scored.
Confidence Interval
The statistical probability that a student score will fall within a certain score range given multiple attempts at the same test.
Construct
The set of concepts or skills that a test is intended to measure, such as reading ability or writing ability.
Constructed Response
An item type that requires a student to respond with a written, pictorial, or graphic answer.
Content
The items and stimuli within a test.
Content Standard
The content and skills students are expected to know and be able to do by the end of the grade band or grade level.
Cut Score
Determinations that separate student scores into performance levels. The assessment system uses four performance levels to indicate student performance on all standards-based assessments: below basic, basic, proficient, and advanced.

D

Data Entry Interface
DEI is a component of the Test Delivery System that allows authorized users to enter student assessment data, such as question responses and scores.
Disaggregation
The process by which performance data is broken down from larger groups into various subgroups or demographics.
District Data Reviewer
System user role allowing a district representative to review district-level data.
District Test Coordinator
System user role representing a test coordinator for an entire district.
Domain
Groups of related standards.

E

Eligibility Rules
Student attributes set up in TIDE that determine which tests a student will be elligible to take in Test Delivery System (TDS).
Embedded Support
Tools and settings within the Student Testing Interface that provide assistance to students.
End-of-Life
The projected date for which an operating system version ends.
English Learner
A student whose native language is not English and who has difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language.
Errors of Measurement
The degree of inherent imprecision in student performance based on test content, administration, scoring, or examinee conditions. Also referred to Standard Error of Measurement (SEM).
Exemplar
An element included in an item's scoring rubric that provides an example of a student response that would earn a certain number of points.

F

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
A federal law that protects students' privacy regarding education records and also provides parents with rights regarding their children's education records.
Frequency-Distribution Report
A report that shows the frequency or count of a particular score or outcome by student group or demographic.

G

Global Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Interface that are available to all students.
Grace Period Extension
An appeal created in TIDE that allows the student to review previously answered questions upon resuming a test after expiration of the pause timer. Extended testing times must be documented in a student's educational plan.

H

Hamburger Menu Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Interface that appear inside a menu and are available for individual items and stimuli.

I

Individual Student Report
A report that provides detailed information about an individual student's performance on a test.
Invalidate a Test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that eliminates the test opportunity, which results in the student having no further opportunities for the test.
Item
A question, exercise, or task that produces data which may be used to indicate student performance.

K

Kiosk Mode
A feature available in certain operating systems in which a device allows access only to a specific application.

L

Learner Characteristic Inventory
A series of questions used to collect educational information about the characteristics of students participating in the WY-ALT.
Longitudinal Report
A report available in Centralized Reporting that shows comparisons of assessment results over time.

M

Modular Previewing System
An application that allows educators to view the content of modular assessments as they appear to students. Also known as Assessment Viewing Application (AVA).

N

Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics
A Braille code for encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly.
Non-Embedded Supports
Tools and settings that are not within the Student Testing Interface that provide assistance to students.

O

Operational Test Administration
An operational test administration is administered at a specified time with the intent to score and share results.
Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test.

P

Paper Order
An order for paper-and-pencil test materials, such as question books and answer sheets. Paper orders can be managed in TIDE.
Participation Rate
The percentage of students within a particular group who took a test as compared to the total number of students in the group who should have taken the test.
Participation Report by SSID
A report available in TIDE that details the status for each test opportunity started by a particular student.
Pause Rule
A rule in the Student Testing Interface that restricts students from modifying their responses to previous items if they pause their test and return to it after exceeding a certain time limit.
Permissive Mode
A Secure Browser setting that allows a student to use pre-approved hardware or software that would otherwise be blocked by the Secure Browser.
Plan and Manage Testing Report
A report available in TIDE that details all of a student’s test opportunities and the status of those test opportunities.
Print Request
A Test Administrator (TA) Interface feature in which students with the appropriate test settings may request printouts of test content, which the test administrator may approve.
PRN File
A Braille file type used to emboss test items containing Nemeth code or tactile graphics.
Proctor
A user role for an educator who may administer test sessions in TDS.

R

Refreshable Braille Display
An assistive technology device for visually-impaired students that translates text to a readable braille format.
Re-open a Test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reopens a test opportunity that was completed, invalidated, or expired.
Re-open a Test Segment Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reopens a test submitted test segment.
Reporting Category
A topic or skill area within a test. In the Centralized Reporting system, some reports may allow users to view performance data by reporting category.
Reset a Test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that allows the student to restart a test opportunity (removing all responses on the test).
Restore a Test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reverses a test reset, restoring the student responses that were on the test when the reset was processed.
Roster
A group of students associated with an educator. Rosters typically represent classes, but may also represent other groups, such as students who have taken honors courses.
Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.

S

Screen Magnifier Technology
A type of assistive technology that enlarges the content displayed on the computer screen in order to assist students with visual impairments.
Screen Reader
An application that transforms the text displayed on a computer screen into synthesized speech for vision-impaired users.
Screensaver Mode
A feature in the Test Administrator Interface that allows test administrators to temporarily hide any sensitive student data that appears on screen.
Secure Browser
The browser through which all operational tests are administered. The Secure Browser provides a secure and user-friendly environment for students to complete tests while preventing access to any prohibited tools or applications.
Secure Inbox
The secure inbox shared across WY-TOPP/WY-ALT systems. It stores files that were exported from those systems.
Secure Student Identifier
A unique number or alphanumeric code assigned to a student for identification purposes. In Wyoming, this is referred to as the WISER ID.
Speech-to-Text
A non-embedded accommodation available in the Student Testing Interface that transcribes a student's speech and enters it into a text box.
Stem
The question or prompt in a test item to which the students must respond.
Stimulus
A reading passage or multimedia resource in a test that students must review in order to respond to a set of associated items.
Student Data File
A spreadsheet file that lists comprehensive test result data for a custom combination of tests and students, which users can generate and export in the Centralized Reporting system.
Student Testing Interface
The component of the Test Delivery System (TDS) where students can take tests, also known as the Secure Browser.

T

Test Administration Certification Course
A certification course offered to Test Administrators and Proctors which prepares them to administer tests via the Test Delivery System (TDS).
Test Administration Site
A component of CAI's Test Delivery System used by test administrators to proctor online test sessions. Both practice and operational TA Sites exist. Also known as the TA Interface.
Test Administrator
A system user role for an educator who may administer test sessions in TDS.
Test Completion Rate Report
A report available in TIDE that summarizes the number and percentage of students who have started or completed a test.
Test Delivery System
A set of systems used by educators to proctor online test sessions and by students to complete online assessments. TDS includes the TA Interface, the Student Testing Interface, the Modular Previewing System, and the Data Entry Interface.
Test Information and Distribution Engine
A system that allows educators to manage user and student information. It is responsible for student registration, gathering of demographic data, and materials ordering.
Test Reason
A category assigned to a test opportunity, which is used to categorize the test for reporting purposes. Test reasons can be assigned to test opportunities in Test Delivery System (TDS) or the Centralized Reporting system.
Test Segment
A section of a test. Tests may be divided into multiple segments based on the skills measured, types of tasks, and/or tools available in that section.
Test Session
An event created by test administrators in the Test Administrator Interface in which they select one or more tests and approve students to take those tests in the Secure Browser.
Test Status Code Report
A report available in TIDE that displays all the non-participation codes for a test administration.
Test Ticket
A piece of paper that includes a student’s username for logging in to a test in Test Delivery System (TDS).
Test Timeout
When a student's test pauses automatically after a certain period of inactivity.
Test Window
The date range in which a particular test is available for administration to eligible students.
Text-to-Speech
An embedded designated support available in the Student Testing Interface that reads aloud text content within a test.
Tutorial
A tool within the Student Testing Interface that plays a video demonstrating how students interact with a particular item type.

U

Uncontracted Braille
A version of Braille that uses cells of dots to represent individual letters, numbers, and symbols.
User Role
A role associated with a user's email address that determines which systems they may access and which permissions they have within that system.

W

Wyoming Content Standards

A set of expectations for what a student should know and be able to do.